ENGLISH TOY TERRIER      Engelsk toy terrier




As a rule, ETT's are healthy dogs who live active lives. Life expecancy is 11-15 years.

There are a few conditions that need attention from breeders and some of them are listed and explained below.

I allmänhet är ETT en hälsosam ras med en livslängd på 11-15 år.

Men som i alla raser finns det ett antal villkor som uppfödare måste ta hänsyn till vid uppfödning.


The diseases that can be DNA-tested will eventually disappear - if breeders take the tests and use the results wisely. If a dog is either Clear or Carrier, it can never be affected by the disease. A Carrier mated with a Clear dog will give the gene to 25% of its offspring on average, but none will be affected. Excluding all Carriers is not ideal in a breed that is small by numbers, but an affected dog must not be used in breeding.

De sjukdomar som kan testas med DNA kommer slutligen att försvinna - om uppfödare använder DNA- testerna och använder resultaten klokt. Om en hund är antingen "Clear" (Fri) eller "Carrier" (Anlagsbärare), kan den aldrig påverkas av sjukdomen. En bärare som paras med en fri hund ger genen till 25% av sin avkomma i genomsnitt, men ingen kommer att bli sjuk. Att utesluta alla bärare ur avel är ingen god idé i en numerärt liten ras, men en "Affected" (Sjuk) hund får inte användas i avel.


Examinations are done for all conditions that can not be DNA-tested. The difference for breeders is that examinations can only show that the dog IS or IS NOT affected. And if the dog IS NOT affected, a new examination may have to be done because the condition may be present but have not  developed yet.

Undersökningar görs för alla sjukdomar som inte kan DNA-testas. Skillnaden för uppfödaren är att undersökningar endast kan visa att hunden är påverkad eller inte. Och om hunden inte är påverkad, kan det krävas en ny undersökning, eftersom sjukdomen kan finnas där men inte utvecklats än.



Luxated patellas are a congenital (present at birth) condition. The actual luxation may not be present at birth, but the structural changes which lead to luxation are present. Most researchers believe luxated patellas to be heritable (inherited), though the exact mode of inheritance is not known.

Three components involved in luxating patellas are the femur (thigh bone), patella (knee cap), and tibia (calf). Luxation (dislocation) of the patella occurs when these structures are not in  alignment. The tibia is rotated medially (inward) which allows the patella to luxate (slip out of its groove) and ride on the inner surface of the femur.

Test: No DNA-tests are available, the dog

needs to be checked by a veterinarian.

Patellaluxation är ett medfödd tillstånd. Tillståndet visar sig kanske inte direkt vid  födseln, men de förändringar som leder till luxation finns där. De flesta forskare anser att tillstådet är ärftligt, men den exakta arvsgången är inte känd.

Tre delar som är involverade  är lårbenet, patella (knälock) och tibia (skenben). Upplösning av patella uppträder när dessa strukturer inte är i linje. Tibia roteras medialt (inåt) vilket gör att patellaen kan luxera (glida ur sin grop) och fastna på lårbenets inre kant.

Test: Inga DNA-tester finns tillgängliga, hunden

behöver utvärderas av veterinär.


This is a disease in the hip joint. The femoral head (top of thigh bone) deteriorates, probably due to  unsufficcient blood flow to the area, resulting in a severely malformed hip joint that causes a lot of pain.

Test: No DNA-tests are available, the dog needs to be

checked by a veterinarian if he or she show symptoms.



Von Willebrand's Disease

This condition is a bleeding disorder  that has been identified in many breeds. For TMT / ETT breed only the Type I is typical and it may be classified as recessively inherited. This disease gives an increased tendency to bleed (clotting defect) due to malfunctioning  thrombocytes and a clotting protein. A dog can be carrier of the gene without being affected. If the dog have two genes and is "affected", he or she is obviously at risk, but may or may not have a severe bleeding incident.

Test: DNA - Cheek Swab by veterinarian.

Result: Clear, Carrier, or Affected status.

Read more:



Juvenile Dilated Cardiomyopathy

The term “cardiomyopathy” refers to an inherent disease (pathy) within the muscle tissue (myo) of the heart (cardio). Though there are several types known in dogs, the arrhythmic disturbance seen in TMTs appears to be unique and affects dogs at a young age. Damage to TMT's hearts occurs over a relatively short period of time.  Affected puppies usually die before a year of age and have been identified as young as 8-12 weeks.  

The condition is caused by a mutation in a gene governing one of the potassium channels involved in the heartbeat function. Researchers theorize that a mutation interrupts the function, causing damage to heart tissue, witch is replaced by scar tissue, interfering with the heart's ability to conduct the electrical current needed to make it beat. The eventual result is a fatal arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) leading to sudden death.  The mutation in question has a simple recessive inheritance. 

Test: DNA,Cheek Swab or Blood sample collected by veterinarian.

Result: Clear, Carrier, or Affected status.

Read more: University of Minnesota



Hereditary xanthinuria is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results in excessive xanthine (a metabolic byproduct) in the urine. This increases the risk for formation of xanthine bladder or kidney stones and can cause significant kidney disease.  Hereditary xanthinuria is a result of mutations in TMT's molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS, type 2a xanthinuria). Xanthinuria can also occur from non-genetic factors such as exposure to drugs that inhibit XDH (e.g. allopurinol). This is termed iatrogenic xanthinuria.

Test: DNA, Cheek Swab or Blood sample collected by veterinarian.

Result: Clear, Carrier, or Affected status.

Read more: University of Minnesota Click: Xanthinuria type 2a



Most Cataracts and close to all PRA's are hereditary in an recessive order. Most common is that symptoms appear after approximately 3-years of age. Both Diseases lead to blindness.

A cataract is any opacity within the lens of the eye. The opacity can be very small (incipient cataract) and not interfere with vision. It can involve more of the lens (immature cataract) and cause blurred vision. Eventually, the entire lens can become cloudy, and all functional vision lost. This is called a mature cataract.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

is a disease of the retina in dogs, in which the rod cells are programmed to die. PRA occurs in both eyes simultaneously and is not painful. The disease  does not seem to be too common for ETT and TMT and therefore DNA-Tests are not available.

The only ways to decrease risks are to make Eye-examinations of breeding dogs througout their lives, and to breed at an older age.

Test: No DNA-tests available.



Although this is not a single disease it is good to know there may be different dental issues on smaller dog breeds. Missing premolars is a problem and missing incisors can occur. Breeders pay better attention to the issues than in the past, and if we breed dogs that have complete sets of teeth, with good space for the teeth, the problem should soon lessen.

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Updated Sept 2020